Does farting burn calories: Myth and how it worksFarts are intestinal gas sometimes called gas. You might fart when you swallow a lot of air while chewing and swallowing. You can also fart because of the bacteria in your colon that are constantly working to break down food. If gas forms in your intestines and you do not burp, it will pass through your intestines and out of your body. The average person passes about 200 milliliters of gasoline a day into 10 or 20 farts. With all this activity, you might be wondering: Do farts burn calories? How many calories can farts burn?A popular Internet claim from 2015 said that a fart burns 67 calories, and farting 52 times a day will burn 1 pound of fat. This claim has since proven to be false. But is there any merit in this question? Experts say farting is a passive activity - so it probably doesn't burn calories at all. When you fart, your muscles relax and the pressure in the gut pushes gas effortlessly. You burn calories when your muscles are working, not when you are relaxing. How can farts burn calories?The only way to burn a few calories with farting is with the power of your wrist - and that's not healthy or normal. If you tire out farting, the calorie expenditure is negligible, maybe one or two calories. It’s not enough to make a difference in your health. You certainly shouldn't rely on farts for weight loss. It shouldn't be used as a substitute for healthy eating and regular exercise, experts say. The key to losing weight is to burn more calories than what you eat. This means eating and drinking fewer calories, exercising more to burn more calories, or a combination of both. When eating for weight loss, you should choose foods that are lower in calories but still very nutritious. This includes : fresh productsWhole grainslean proteindairyAvoid high calorie foods that do not fill you up or provide you with nutrients, such as sugary desserts and white bread. Foods high in fiber are often very filling and healthy, but be aware that they can cause a lot of gas, especially if you are not used to eating them. Slowly introduce fiber into your diet. Women should consume between 20 and 25 grams of fiber per day, while men should consume between 30 and 38 grams per day for weight loss. When it comes to exercise, you should get 30 minutes to 1 hour of moderate physical activity per day. This could involve: hikingjoggingswimmingcyclingweightliftingStaying active by gardening or cleaning often can also help you burn calories to lose more weight. If we don't burn calories when we fart, then why do we sometimes feel thinner after farting? Experts say it's probably because farting is a great way to reduce bloating. Bloating can be caused by many factors, including: eating fatty foods, which slow stomach emptying and can make you feel uncomfortably fulldrink carbonated drinks, which release gas bubbles in the stomacheating carbonated foods like beans, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, which cause bacteria to expel gas in the stomacheating too fast, drinking through a straw, or chewing gum can all make you swallow air.stress or anxiety, which can cause gas to build up in the digestive tractsmoking, which can make you swallow excess airinfections or gastrointestinal blockages, which can cause bacteria to release gasirritable bowel syndrome which can cause abdominal pain, cramps, bowel problems, and gas.Celiac disease or lactose intolerance, which can both cause digestive problems and cause gas to build up.Here are some tips for reducing gas buildup: Eat and drink slowly to swallow less air.Avoid carbonated drinks and beer.Avoid chewing gum and candy to swallow less air.Make sure your dentures fit properly, as ill-fitting dentures can cause you to swallow excess air while you eat and drink.Stop smoking to swallow less air.Eat smaller portions of food to aid digestion and prevent gas.Exercise to circulate gas through your digestive tract.The passage of gas is normal. It can make you feel less bloated if you experience a buildup of gas in your gut. There is one thing you can't do with a fart: lose weight. It is not a calorie-burning activity. Farting is pretty passive. If you are looking to lose weight, eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly to burn more calories than you eat. I fart a lot, what should I do? Farting is normal and natural: (serious) studies have shown that on average, men and women fart about 14 times a day. It's a fact: hyper staid chicks who say they never fart lie ...But hey, releasing the gases that are stagnant in our gut, even if it's natural, it's not super refined. In some cases, you can still blame the dog, a toddler or a stranger in the street. But when you're stuck with BigBoss in an elevator, it's trickier ... To avoid hyper-embarrassing moments and / or long moments of solitude, Fork & Bikini reveals all the secrets to stop farting!Foods to avoid so as not to fart too much!The process of gas is quite simple: when you eat, whatever you swallow is not digested by your stomach. However, the undigested substances which remain in our intestines make the bacteria present happy, which feast on them, and release gases by digesting them. If we want to fart less, it is therefore logically necessary to limit the absorption of foods containing these substances that our stomach does not manage to digest, which are: Foods rich in sugars. But not just any sugars: fructose (onion, artichoke, wheat), lactose (ice cream, milk, cheese, butter ...), sorbitol (sugar-free chewing gum, apple, pear, plum ... ) and raffinose (whole grain cereals). Foods rich in starch, such as potatoes, white bread, pasta, corn ... Famous exception: rice! Foods rich in fiber, such as asparagus, cabbage, prunes, fruits or pulses (the famous white beans!), Legumes ...Daily tips to limit flatulenceWhen we farts a lot, it's often because without knowing it we have bad reflexes on a daily basis. So if we often exceed our daily quota of 14 pets / day, here are some good reflexes to adopt: Chew with your mouth closed. Logic: when we eat with our mouths open, in addition to exasperating our neighbors at the table, we swallow air. However, when you swallow air through your mouth, it often comes out half an hour later on the other side ... You don't hesitate to drink water while eating. Avoid tobacco, which also makes us swallow air. Limit our consumption of soft drinks, always for the same reasons. After a meal - tasted with the mouth closed - you don't hesitate to stretch a little, to make a few small movements, even a small digestive walk. Above all, we do not lie down after having eaten, because we open a boulevard to gases which will pass directly from the stomach to the intestine! Relax. It's proven: stressed and anxious people tend to fart more than others! Well, if it's the fact of being an inveterate prankster that stresses us out, it becomes complicated ... Drink water in which drops of peppermint extract have been diluted. It doesn't make you fart less, but the gas smells less bad! Anti-fart drugs?If despite all our goodwill we still fart happily and that bothers us, we can always take a little tour of the pharmacy. If there is no miracle cure (that would be known!), People who have easy flatulence are generally referred to Siligaz (a name that says a lot!), A pill that fights intestinal bloating. origin of flatulence, and vegetable charcoal, a natural remedy against aerophagia. You can also find liquid solutions in pharmacies, to be applied in drops on meals that contain foods that generate farts! If after all this our farts are still so frequent, we can go see our doctor. He may prescribe medications that will help us digest complex sugars. And therefore, unless you let go of gas!
Is the Earth really round? The flatness of the earth is theorized by a large community of "truthers". The Flat Earth Society, an American organization founded in 1956, structures this idea using arguments that go against those of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other government or private agencies developing space programs. This idea brings together millions of people around the world nicknamed the "flat earthers" (followers of the theory of the flat earth). In the United States, approximately 12 million people subscribe to the idea that our planet is not round but rather flat, like an infinite horizon that the rays of the Sun only caress. In USA, 1 in 10 people would also be convinced. THE EARTH, A HORIZON LIKE ANOTHER?There are several supposedly scientific arguments against the "official" versions. The flatness of the horizon, for example, raises several questions: the human eye sees this horizon flat and straight, without curvature, even on a sea as far as the eye can see. This would be a first clue inconsistent with the theory of a spherical planet. Also highlighted are the shots taken by meteorological balloons at an altitude of more than 30 km, which bear witness to an equally flat horizon. The "platists" also rely on global aviation to base their theory: when developing flight plans, the curvature of the Earth is never taken into account. But if the Earth is round, how do planes go from one hemisphere to another in a straight line? The curvature of the Earth is also not recognized as a constraint by architects and engineers, who should take it into account in their construction plans. In order to corroborate these theories, results of laser measurements on bodies of water which would show no curvature have been put forward. The very shape of the Earth is not the only one to be questioned. Platists also question the principle of the Earth's rotation, both on itself and around the Sun. According to pictures taken by "flat earthers", the Moon would always present the same face to us and during solar eclipses the movement of the Sun, from east to west, would be reversed, which would call into question the rotation of the Earth. A MOST TROUBLE PARALLAXBut one of the flat earthers' most advanced arguments is the parallax phenomenon. Parallax is the displacement of the apparent position of a celestial body due to the change of position of the observer. In astronomy, parallax is the angle of observation of a star from a reference length. Since the stars are at different distances, we should therefore observe a difference in the speed of their movements. However, according to the flat earthers, we only observe a uniform movement, which means that they are all on the same plane. This is in addition to many questioning of the nature of stars following observations of these organizations whose images differ from the pictures presented by NASA. The questioning sometimes goes even further. Some question the principle of gravity, which is one of the movement's flagship arguments. According to some proponents of the Flat Earth if gravity is powerful enough to hold buildings and waters as dense as oceans on the ground, how then can bodies as light as small birds or even airplanes stand? so easily rise in the air? According to the Flat Earth Society, the origins of this plot that would lead us to believe that the Earth is round accelerated during the Cold War. The theorists explain that this is a strategy of political manipulation between the United States and the USSR, the conquest of space having for sole purpose to prove the superiority of one of the antagonistic models: Americans and Soviets would have multiplied the false missions to gain the upper hand over the other. SPHERE ONE DAY, SPHERE ALWAYSThe Earth is indeed not perfectly curved. The distribution of masses, both at the surface and at depth, is not homogeneous. The shape of the Earth changes in response to gravity. The great glacier episodes in our planet's history have contributed to its irregularity by forming bumps and valleys over the millennia. However, this phenomenon cannot be observed with the naked eye and does not change the generally round shape of our planet. Many facts, which everyone can see, confirm the roundness of the Earth. First of all, anyone who has observed a lunar eclipse will have noticed that when the Earth comes to position itself between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow formed by the latter on the Moon is completely spherical. Astronomical observation also points in this direction since, depending on where we are on Earth, we can observe some constellations and not others. If the Earth were flat, we could all observe the same stars. At different distances, yes, but none would be obstructed. The Sun is also a revealing element of the spherical character of our planet. If the Earth were flat, the Sun would remain visible even when its rays do not reach the region we are in; black and complete nights could not exist in this case. The course of the Sun as well as the rotation of the Earth are very simply observable with the movement of the shadow on our sundials in the space of 24 hours. Another element specific to our globe: the distribution of gravity. According to Isaac Newton's definition, the law of universal attraction is the attraction between bodies with gravitational mass. The center of the Earth represents a gravitational mass strong enough to keep our feet on the Earth. All over the world, all humans can evolve on the ground in the same way because gravity is the same for all, each part of the surface of the Earth being at an equal distance from its center. This phenomenon is only made possible by a spherical shape; a flat Earth would not correspond to an attraction towards the ground but on the sides in order to make converge all the masses towards the same gravitational center. One of the most trivial phenomena that can confirm the spherical nature of the Earth are time zones. If our planet was not a globe and did not turn on itself, it would be impossible to explain the differences in sun exposure according to the hours of the day as well as the simple phenomenon of night in the absence of eclipse. To corroborate the roundness of the Earth, NASA astronauts like Terry Virts (more than 200 days in space), Scott Kelly (520 days in space) and even Buzz Aldrin do not hesitate to refer to the skeptics. photos they themselves took of the Earth, round is sublime, seen in all its glory from the International Space Station.
Raid on Area 51, they will not be able to stop us all ": such is the crazy bet launched by a surfer on Facebook whose objective is to penetrate one of the most secret and mystical places in the world. , 2 million people answered the call and 1 million are interested. "Area 51" is located 160 kilometers from Las Vegas in Nevada, in the northwestern United States. Created in the 1950s, this 1.2 million hectare military base serves as a secret ground for weapons and aircraft testing. It is strictly forbidden to enter under penalty of a fine. Signs surrounding the area even mention that "the use of lethal force is permitted". Many conspiratorial theories believe Americans have evidence that there is alien life. Evidence that they have been hiding and protecting since the early 1950s in "Area 51". Everyone would like to bypass the security of the site and get their hands on these exhibits and answer the riddle. For paranormal enthusiasts, this secret military base would actually be a meeting place between the US military and extraterrestrials. Some say that UFOs landed there, maybe they saw flying devices tested by the army? Is Area 51 Hiding Aliens? Is the US military studying aliens from a secret base in Nevada? This is the question at the heart of Idées Claires, our weekly program produced by France Culture and Franceinfo intended to fight against information disorders, from fake news to preconceived ideas.Hundreds of thousands of Americans would like to know what is hiding in Area 51. An event created on Facebook proposes to massively invade the military base on September 20, to find out whether or not it is hiding extraterrestrials. The event counted at the beginning of September more than 2 million people interested, enough to worry the authorities. Few places in the world feed the fantasy machine as much as Area 51. This 155 km2 military base, located right in the Nevada desert was built in the 1950s, but has not been officially recognized. than in 2013.The secrecy surrounding the area has given rise to food for thought for conspirators for decades. The US military is said to be studying captured alien specimens there, including the so-called flying saucer that crashed in Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947. This sci-fi tale-worthy folklore has subscribed to the collective imagination thanks to series like The X-Files or films, like Independance Day by Roland Emmerich. Yet documents declassified in 2013 show the base was used to test prototypes of stealth planes during the Cold War. So many questions that we asked Pierre Lagrange, sociologist of science, researcher at LIER (Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Studies on Reflexivities). Is Area 51 Hiding Aliens? Pierre Lagrange: "A priori area 51 does not hide extraterrestrial activity. On the other hand, for a whole bunch of groups which have seized on this history and the larger stories which serve as a basis for the Roswell affair, yes, Area 51 is where the military hides what they discovered around the Roswell case and “alien visits” to Earth. " How did this myth of Area 51 come about? Pierre Lagrange: "In 1980, a book was published, it says that in 1947, the American army hid the discovery of a saucer and its extraterrestrial pilots. Until then, there were a whole lot of ideas how the US military had conducted a UFO study program in the 1950s-1960s and it was at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. In the 1980s, this story is going to move from Wright-Patterson to Nevada. There was a whole discourse, a whole folklore which had developed about the existence of a secret hangar, which one called “the hangar 18” where would have been hidden corpses of extraterrestrials. " What really happened in Roswell in 1947? Pierre Lagrange: "What happened in 1947 near the city of Roswell in New Mexico was the flying object debris that we had found on the ground. At the time, it was explained as being debris from a weather balloon. Today what we know is that this corresponded to an ultra-secret program at the level of the atomic bomb which consisted in spying, thanks to giant balloon trails, the Russians in case they too had acquired atomic bomb. But in the 1990s, when the military came to say "yes we hid the truth" by revealing that they were secret balloons, obviously they were no longer audible. At the same time, they explain that they hid the truth in 1947 and that now they are going to tell the truth. This truth is disappointing to most people because it does not agree with the extraterrestrial thesis. " By declassifying documents, the government has on the contrary fueled suspicion ... Pierre Lagrange: "In the 1970s, with the strengthening of the“ Freedom of information Act ”, the law on access to administrative documents which is very effective in the United States, it becomes very easy for citizens to obtain documents from the US administration. The ufologists will use it from 1976, they will have the US Air Force, the FBI, the CIA, the NSA declassified a whole bunch of documents which relate to everything that these organizations have been able to do with near or far on the question of UFOs. Since many of these documents are redacted, especially those from the CIA and the NSA, ufologists will spend years trying to figure out what is under the black ink that obscures some of the information. What's astonishing about the Pentagon is that in fact, every time they try to screw up this story, they actually only succeed in reviving it and giving it even more popularity. great than the previous time. " Is there a parallel government responsible for the extraterrestrial issue? Pierre Lagrange: "In 1987, among the“ secret ”documents that emerge, there are about fifteen pages, which are presented as a briefing prepared for President Eisenhower in 1952, which explains to him everything that happened before he 'he becomes president, so the Roswell affair, secrets, etc. Ufologists will take several years to determine that in fact, these are cleverly fabricated fakes by people who were familiar with the matter. But as these questions will go far beyond the framework of ufology from the end of the 1980s, it will allow the recovery by fringes of the population which are traditionally known for their belonging to the survivalist milieu, of the extreme right. , ultra-conspiratorial. These people will not hesitate to take the folklore of UFOs and put it in their sauce, which means adding a whole bunch of elements that the ufologists are going to be the first to denounce. " Is the alien dissection video genuine? Pierre Lagrange: "So in 1995, all the stories around Roswell, from area 51, will in fact emerge in the general public on a global level thanks to a video broadcast by Ray Santilli who is an English producer. The video shows the alleged autopsy of an alien who was allegedly recovered from Roswell. The device, investigations will show it to be a fake. Years later, whoever made the model will explain how he did it. Thanks to the X-Files series, which had started a year earlier and which will recover these stories. The X-Files will allow all the details of this story to be implanted in the collective memory throughout the seasons of the series. So by now everyone has heard about the main elements of the Roswell case and the other elements that revolve around this folklore. " Why did the US government never reveal what Area 51 was hiding? The documents which concern all that is technological research which have in particular the area 51 as main base, it concerns high-tech aeronautics so there, there is a tradition of secrecy maintained even with the members of the Congress who vote these budgets. So it's hard to imagine that part of the network that runs the United States is revealing these secrets.
Grits is a porridge made from boiled cornmeal. Hominy oatmeal is a type of oatmeal made from hominy - corn that has been treated with an alkali in a process called nixtamalization with the pericarp removed. Oatmeal is often served with other flavors as a breakfast dish. Oatmeal can be salty or sweet, with savory seasonings being more common. The dish originated in the southern United States, but is now available nationwide. Oatmeal is popular as a main course of shrimp and grits, served primarily in the south. Oatmeal should not be confused with boiled ground corn, early pudding, porridge or polenta as they have different ingredients and preparation. Groats are Native American in origin and are similar to other thick corn-based porridges around the world, such as polenta and mieliepap. In the Charleston, SC area, cooked grains are called hominy and uncooked grains are called grist. The word "grits" is derived from the Old English word grytt, which means "rude meal". The dish originated from a 16th century Native American Muskogee tribe's recipe for Indian corn similar to hominy or corn. The Muskogee would grind the corn in a stone mill, giving it a "grainy" texture. They were made using a stone crusher. Settlers and settlers enjoyed the new staple along with the local Native Americans and it became an American staple. At that time, the hominy for grains was crushed on a stone mill. The ground hominy was then passed through sieves, the finer sieved material used as sand meal and the coarser as grain. South Carolina state law requires that porridge and rice flour be fortified, like the flour requirement. Three-quarters of the grain sold in the United States is purchased in the south, in an area stretching from Lower Texas to Washington D.C. that is sometimes referred to as the “grain belt”. The state of Georgia declared oatmeal to be its official prepared food in 2002. A similar bill was introduced in South Carolina to call it the official state food, but it did not move forward. Nonetheless, South Carolina still has an entire chapter of legislation dealing exclusively with cornmeal and porridge. Oatmeal can be yellow or white, depending on the color of the corn used. The most common version in supermarkets is the "quick" grain, which removes the germ and husk. Whole grain grains are sometimes referred to as "speckled". Oatmeal is prepared by adding four parts of boiling water or milk (seasoned with 1⁄4 teaspoon of salt for each cup of liquid) to one part of cornmeal. Cover and cook for 20 to 45 minutes over medium-low heat, stirring regularly. Oatmeal expands when cooked and needs to be stirred to prevent sticking and lump formation. They are not completed until they have absorbed four and a quarter times their volume. Whole grains take much longer to become soft than “fast grains”. Some people serve oatmeal with sugar, while others object to sweet oatmeal. They are often served with butter. They are served with grated cheese, sausage, bacon, salt and pepper or red-eye sauce. Extra grains - that is, leftovers - can be placed in a glass tumbler or loaf pan, refrigerated until needed, sliced and fried plain or with breadcrumbs. In this form, they are referred to as “fried oatmeal”, “fried hominy” or “grit cakes”. Oatmeal is eaten with a wide variety of foods, such as eggs and bacon, fried catfish, salmon cakes, or country ham. Shrimp and grits are a traditional dish in coastal communities of the Lowcountry of South Carolina and the Low Coastal Plain of Georgia. A variation of the dish is also eaten for breakfast in the northern states of Kedah and Perlis in Peninsular Malaysia. It is a traditional breakfast dish. Solidified cooked groats can be sliced and fried in vegetable oil, butter or bacon fat, or they can be breaded in beaten eggs and breadcrumbs first.
Don't ducks have cold feet? Don't ducks get cold feet when they walk in the snow? Let's see if Science can help us unravel this mystery! Cold, the ducks? Never ! Outside, it's cold, a duck cold, to use the expression that refers to low temperatures faced by hunters during fall and winter. Yet if he is well an animal that does not suffer from low temperatures, it is him.Looking at him a little more closely, one wonders about the contrast between his body protected fromcold by a thick down that covers a layer of fat and its bare and thin legs that most often remain submerged in ice water. How does he not catch the dead where such a foot bath could be fatal to humans? This is thanks to an ingenious device with which it is equipped. “Indeed, explains the naturalist JeanMarc Fivat, in summer, the blood circulates uniformly in their body but during the season cold, blood circulation to the skin and extremities is limited. The vessels under the legs constrict, returning blood to the body. By a system exchange between veins and arteries, the arterial blood that goes down to the legs transmits, before of having reached them, its warmth to the venous blood which returns to the heart. The temperature is therefore strongly lowered in the legs but still remains a few degrees above zero thanks to vessels which dilate at regular intervals so that they are supplied with blood, oxygen and nutrients. (…) Why then do thousands of ducks from the north travel so many kilometers to come to us and usually only gain a few degrees on the thermometer? "It is not the cold in itself that is at the origin of their arrival, explains the specialist, but the freezing water, especially the Baltic Sea, which prevents them from finding their food then trapped under the ice. Deprived of algae, shellfish and fish, they land on our large lakes generally untouched. These migrants therefore adopt a attitude of nomads during harsh winters before resuming in mid-February, the road to their regions of origin ". Mallard and goose are less dependent on water. Indeed, unlike the majority of water birds, geese do not find their food in lakes but in fields (grasses, wheat, corn). When the cold keeps the snow cover on the ground, then it is time for them to go further south. The case of the mallard is also special. This opportunist does not hesitate to go to the cornfields eat grains left on the ground or under oak trees to find acorns when algae, seeds, invertebrates and bread are scarce. Reason why the Swiss mallard usually stays in Switzerland all year round. Another explanation comes from the popular belief that, in very cold weather, ducks can have their feet caught in the ice of bodies of water. The expression “it's freezing cold” could therefore be the contraction of “it's freezing cold the legs of a duck”. This expression comes from duck hunting, which is practiced in autumn, but also in winter where the hunter must remain motionless, on the lookout, and let the cold penetrate him to the bone while waiting for one of his poor victims. please come closer. As the duck is chasing itself for a long enough period in a part of which it is not necessarily cold, it is necessary to specify what this 'duck cold' corresponds to. As everyone knows, the duck lives readily on lakes and ponds where it has its habits a large part of the year. The body of water protects it in part from its terrestrial predators of which humans are a part. When the temperature becomes very cold and the ponds freeze, the duck is forced to move and joins flowing waters, streams and rivers, less prone to frost, which increases its mobility and therefore its visibility. And it would indeed be on these very cold days that the hunter would have the best chance of meeting this poor palmiped. The most obvious physical protection birds have to protect themselves from the cold is their insulating feather coat. The feathers are inert and contain no skin or vessels blood, and thus does not disperse body heat into the environment. On the contrary, they retain body heat by trapping hot air near the skin. The number of feathers varies with the seasons, and are more numerous in winter than in summer. Besides the flight feathers of the wings and the feathers covering their bodies, waterfowlhave thick layers of down, especially on their chest and stomach. The downy feathers are specialized: they are small, light and their beards are not tangled. Their main function is to conserve heat. Down feathers are very abundant in certain species (ducks, geese, etc.); they are sometimes torn off bythe bird on its own body in order to fill the nest. Anyone who has ever worn a lined coatof downy feathers knows how effective they are in winter and insulate well from the cold.Subepidermal fat Under the feathers is the skin, which also plays an important role in controlling the loss. The skin is supplied with blood vessels which carry warm blood from the body to exterior surfaces. In addition, the dermis, the layer of skin located immediately below the thin outer layer of the skin (the epidermis), is a site of fat storage. The sub-epidermal storage of fat is particularly important in ducks that live in cold aquatic environments. These fat reserves have two functions: they provide additional insulation by compared to feathers, and they serve as a reserve of energy that can be mobilized in cold weather when metabolic demands are high and food availability is low. Reminder: metabolism and body temperature Metabolism is the set of physical and chemical (enzymatic) reactions that take place produce within a living being and more specifically in its cells and environment interior (blood and lymph). The basic (or basal) metabolism in humans is the amount of heat released by a being not asleep, at rest physically (lying down) and intellectually, at an ambient temperature of 25 ° C and on an empty stomach for 12 hours (i.e. not performing digestive activity). Birds have a high basal metabolism and therefore need a lot of energy resources. Proportionately, large birds consume less energy per unit area than the little birds. Along with metabolism, birds tend to have a temperature body higher than mammals. It is generally understood according to the species between 38 and 42 degrees. That of large wingless birds such as ostriches and some water birds like penguins have a lower body temperature than other birds. Finally, birds are generally larger in cold environments than in tropical areas, because they have a proportional body surface area lesser. Birds living in cold environments must conserve their body heat to avoid hypothermia. However, the blood, which flows from the center of the body (heart) to the periphery (such as paws and feet) can easily lead to heat loss through dissipation in the atmosphere at the level of the skin. To prevent such a loss, birds have a real heat exchanger with counter-current made up of blood vessels (arteries and veins) located in the legs and which allows heat to be recovered and saved. This principle of counter-current heat exchange is so efficient and ingenious that it has also beenadapted by humans to optimally heat buildings while limiting waste energy in winter! Bird's counter-current heat exchanger consists of arteries and veins adjacent and whose blood streams go in opposite directions. The artery brings blood hot in the paws, and the heat of the blood in the artery is transferred to the circulating blood in the vein (of course, oxygen and nutrients continue to nourish the cells of the paws). As a result of this heat exchange, the blood in the bird's legs is relatively fresh and little heat is lost. Thus, a duck standing on ice loses a small amount of heat through its paws. While the fundamental body temperature of a duck standing on ice is around 37.8 ° C, the temperature of the bird's legs can be just above 0 ° C. To preserve their heat in cold weather, waterfowl also reduce the volume of blood that flows to their paws by constricting the blood vessels in their paws. Of experiments have shown that ducks gradually reduce the flow of blood to their legsas the air temperature drops to 0 degrees. However, when the temperatures drop below 0 ° C, the birds re-increasing the blood flow to their legs to prevent tissue degradation. Birds also protect their legs by tucking them into the feathers of their flanks and close of their body. To minimize exposure in cold weather, waterfowl should place themselves often on one paw, occasionally placing the other paw in the feathers of their body to protect it from the cold. A cold adaptation of the cells of the tissues of the legs In most birds, part of the legs are featherless. The longest part without feather is made up of the tarso-metatarsus (the foreleg bone). This bone corresponding to a fusion of the tarsus and metatarsus and is the equivalent of the bone in our foot. The tibia and the femur are generally covered with feathers. Thus, part of the paw and the fingers are not isolated. To keep their paws too hot than the rest of the body, birds should send a large amount of blood hot to these exposed areas. But on the contrary, they let their paws cool down in order to only have to provide them with a small amount of blood. In Herring Gulls, for example, the part of the leg exposed to the elements may have a temperature of only 4 ° C, and the below the leg is just above 0 ° C! In order for the tissues of the lower leg to endure such low temperatures, their cells had to adapt. Each living cell is surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane consisting mainly of a bilayer of phospholipids. Each phospholipid is made up of two hydrophobic chains of carbon atoms called fatty acids pointing towards the center of the membrane. To work suitably, the phospholipid of the membrane needs to be able to move in the plane of the membrane: it must therefore be sufficiently fluid to allow small molecules like oxygen to enter the cell and carbon dioxide to come out. The membrane can adopt different states depending on the temperature and pressure. By example, a membrane of pure phospholipids forms a liquid-crystalline phase at 20 ° C and 1 bar pressure while at -20 ° C it rather forms a gel phase. So when the membrane is exposed to cold temperatures, it forms a more rigid assembly. Oxygen cannot then more diffuse in the cell, and the freezing often results in the death of this one. Each fatty acid carbon atom of a phospholipid has four attachment points. Usually two of them serve to adhere to the two carbon atoms of the fatty acid adjacent. The other two attachment points usually attach to a hydrogen atom. However, it is possible that two adjacent carbon atoms lose one of their atoms. hydrogen and establish a double bond between them, forming trans fatty acids. Is the then calls unsaturated fatty acids (in hydrogen), i.e. comprising at least oneC = C double bond between two carbon atoms. Unsaturated fatty acids tend to stay in a liquid state at room temperature. So, by creating double bonds between their carbon atoms, the fatty acids of the membrane cytoplasmic birds' feet allow the membrane to remain liquid even under cold temperatures, and so continue to operate normally. Why don't most birds have feathers on their legs? This is related to the fact that the metabolism of the bird is high to provide enough energy. For the flight. The excess additional heat produced must then be removed, even under colder climates, to avoid overheating. The featherless legs are the place where this heat is evacuated. the presence of feathers would prevent this evacuation.
The multiple disciplines of the NCAA excite fans, enrich universities and generate billions of dollars each year. With athletes who are not allowed to touch a single cent.Many know the acronyms NBA, NFL or NHL. Significantly fewer people know what NCAA means and stands for. This is the National Collegiate Athletic Association, or, if you prefer, the Athletic Federation of American Universities. An organization that brings together more than 460,000 student-athletes at 1,280 universities or colleges across the United States. The NCAA is responsible for coordination between member institutions and their conferences or leagues, managing the competition aspect and all matters relating to the rules of the game, officials, and match schedules. She is also responsible for the exploitation of commercial rights, be it TV, radio or digital rights and end-of-season championship revenues. Finally, it ensures the balance between sports and studies of athletes and their academic development. The NCAA is a bit like any other professional league in the minds of sports fans in the United States. The content is rich, the seasons are frenzied, the TV audiences very strong. With the very big difference that it is unpaid students rather than professional millionaires who are the stars in the field. This is all the more paradoxical given that the income generated by the NCAA is enormous. In 2016, they amounted to $ 1 billion for the national association's own revenues, and $ 12 billion for college sport as a whole. According to a study published in 2016, 24 American universities have generated more than 100 million dollars in annual revenues from their various sports programs. It is a huge industry that influences the social, economic and media spheres of America, and captures the attention of Americans and professional leagues. Football and basketball fund 20 other sports The NCAA has 23 disciplines, but the vast majority of its income comes from two sports: American football and basketball. For example, the University of Texas has 50,000 students and its Faculty of Sports more than 20 disciplines, including the Longhorns, the famous football team, which is the most commercial in the country with annual revenues of more than $ 128 million. In most universities, football and basketball fund other sports programs. In the United States, great importance is placed on diversity, equality and opportunity. Just because small disciplines like wrestling, lacrosse, women's swimming or soccer attract less audiences or generate a lot of commercial rights doesn't mean that equivalent scholarships will not be offered to these students. The system is therefore firmly in place to reinvest in sport and thus develop elite high-level athletes in all disciplines. This makes American universities extremely attractive to young athletes. The NCAA model is very effective in keeping young people motivated by high performance sport but also diligent in studies. For many students from modest backgrounds, winning a scholarship thanks to their athletic talents is the only chance to "afford" university, which pays in the United States (between $ 25,000 and $ 60,000 per year). A scholarship is worth $ 300,000 The best student-athletes playing in high schools in the United States, Canada and even now in Asia and Europe, aspire to succeed on both counts (academic and athletic) in order to receive one of these scholarships. They include tuition, accommodation, meals and sports equipment for four years of study leading to graduation. All of these benefits are worth approximately a total of $ 300,000. Each football team funds 85, each basketball team 13. Thousands of student-athletes join the ranks of the NCAA annually. They find there academic institutions devoted and committed to their sports programs. Universities rely heavily on the prestige of their teams and invest millions of dollars in infrastructure and salaries to hire the best technical directors, the best coaches. All this by very aggressive recruitment in order to win. Regularly, scandals erupt around illicit gifts (sums of money or benefits in kind) offered to potential recruits. These should only receive as "salary" the assurance of benefiting from perfect training conditions in contact with the best players and coaches, of being able to pursue their dream of one day joining the professional elite of the country, and if this does not happen. not walking, going out with a college degree. But why is the United States crazy about college basketball? Exit the NBA: in the spring, America is passionate about college basketball with the "March Madness". On Monday night, the University of North Carolina won against that of Gonzaga In order to stand out again from his predecessor, Donald Trump has left his bracket open. And thus broke the tradition instituted by Barack Obama, quick to deliver every year in March his forecasts for the final table of the university basketball championship (NCAA). A grid of 68 teams, divided into four regions, dreaming of the High Mass of the Final Four which was held this weekend in Phoenix. Making a perfect copy is a pipe dream, but the former president is not up for grabs: he predicted the victory of North Carolina, the former college of Michael Jordan, who won the tournament on Monday night against Gonzaga. The sixth success in the history of the university, the first of the program since 2009. Like Obama, some 40 million Americans get caught up in the game. Enough to generate, it is estimated, around $ 9 billion in bets and a loss of productivity of over 1 billion, as many employees are keep the eyes on the matches. The phenomenon has a name: March Madness. The madness of March. Seen from here, where university sport has not the slightest echo, it's hard to imagine that such a tournament could generate 1.2 billion in advertising revenue, or better than the NBA playoffs. Or that the last square is played in front of more than 70,000 people, in a US football stadium (that of the Arizona Cardinals). Entrance fee: between 300 and 5,000 dollars, pending the soaring black market. University professionalism This effervescence stems from a deeply rooted culture that makes alumni viscerally attached to their university and the teams that represent it. This is also where we track down the future stars of the NBA. In the meantime, these students, who are exempt from tuition fees, are already the stars of their campus. Killian Tillie can talk about it, he who is a VIP guest at every party. "We must recognize that being in the basketball team helps a lot with the girls. So you have to take advantage!", Laughs this Frenchman of 19 years and 2.07 m, best player of Euro U16 in 2014 He knows he's quite a lucky guy: first year with Gonzaga, first Final Four, first Final. A level never reached by this university in Washington State, where students sometimes camp in front of the hall to watch matches. Son of Laurent Tillie, the coach of the Blues volleyball, Killian had already smelled this sweet madness by visiting his elders Kim and Kevin, passed through the NCAA in basketball and volleyball before becoming international. But he couldn't get over the resonance of the moment, like the crowd waiting for the Bulldogs to return from qualifying for the Final Four. "Everyone was crazy. And these last days, the teachers have left us a little alone with the homework. They rather talk to us about our matches!" On the field side, we tend towards professionalism. Staff fleshed out around a highly paid coach (Mark Few earns $ 1.63 million annually), weight training before class, three hours of training in the afternoon, private plane trips, high-end hotels. "And the room is open to us whenever we want, lights Tillie. One weekend when I had free time, I went for a shoot session at midnight." Tillie in Noah's Footsteps Before signing to Gonzaga, he had been called by Ronny Turiaf, former of the university, probably on commissioned service on that one. But on Sunday, the young man would have liked to walk in the footsteps of another compatriot. Those of Joakim Noah, the only Frenchman to have won the title, in 2006 and 2007 with Florida.
Why do men love breasts so much? Aaah, men and breasts, a very long history, stretching back thousands of years. Already, homo sapiens, in his cave, among other drawings, was drawing breasts on the walls. Today nothing has really changed. Whether it is to sell a perfume, a car or even at the approach of the holidays, bus shelters are regularly covered with advertising posters putting the female breast in the spotlight and in value.Whether you are a reader, one thing is unquestionable first: Breasts are among those most admired and glorified female attributes throughout the ages. At all times, we find them qualities, whether they are small or large, shaped like pears, apples, lemons or even mangoes. And the list of comparisons is obviously even longer! No doubt because in a woman, it is the first feminine attribute that is visible at first glance, not to mention that, for centuries, it was also the only typically feminine attribute that clothing made visible, in all layers of the society. Breasts have been valued for millenniaThis obviously comes from their primary function, the breastfeeding of children, inseparable from motherhood, hence the expression "maternal breast", which we find repeated several dozen times in the Old Testament, then later, in literature, not only in the West but also in the Middle East and Asia. From then on, there is no doubt that the attraction that men feel for the breasts is both innate and acquired. Innate, because the search for the breast to be able to suck is a reflex in the baby, whatever its sex. Acquired, because the attraction of men for the breasts, which have become sexually mature, would send them back to the unconscious and buried memory of the maternal breast and the release of oxytocin, the hormone of love and attachment, released during breastfeeding. And if a baby who has become a man has in fact never breasted, it is again on the side of the innate that we must look for the reason that attracts him to his partner's breasts. But to all this is obviously added cultural conditioning. A culture, a religion, which would force women to hide their breasts, not only in their clothing, but also in the alcove, would slow down in a few generations the male appetite for the breasts. Literature, painting, sculpture, cinema: breasts are everywhereConversely, and in particular in the West, painting, sculpture, literature, then later, sartorial fashion, and not only lingerie, but also that of everyday clothes, almost always emphasized the breast. feminine. For those who doubt it, one only has to review a few paintings by the great masters of the Renaissance, then the images of pin-ups that appeared in the 1940s and which for several decades symbolized the ideal woman, both in the States - United than in Europe. In the 17th century as in the 20th century, the breasts are never very covered, nor masked by the decor, or any object or accessory. The appearance of the bikini on the beaches after the war, quickly adopted by women, then, at the end of the 60s, the transition to the monokini and therefore to the topless on the beach, only strengthened the breasts in their primary role of symbol of femininity. Add to that the advertising, which uses the female body, and quite often the breast, to praise the merits of a product or simply to grab the attention of the consumer. Sprinkle it all with thousands of movie scenes which, without being forbidden to under 12s, reveal half-open bodices, when the breasts are not simply shown bluntly. You can even find it in children's cartoons ... Finish with the lingerie ads that regularly appear on 4x3 billboards, on the backs of buses ("Look me in the eye, I said ... eyes" asked Eva Herzigova in 1994), or now on a page computer or smartphone, in the middle of reading an article on the 2018 budget or on Donald Trump's foreign policy. And you can easily see why men are genetically programmed and socially conditioned to love breasts ... The breasts, an erogenous zone to rememberWe almost forget to write here that men, at least the most attentive or the most skillful, have also understood that it is a particularly sensitive erogenous zone in women. And that amorous foreplay is even more successful if we take the time to linger on the breasts, caressing them and kissing them, and more, if you like. In summary, as you will have understood, the reasons why men are attracted to breasts are numerous, both inherited from the history of our evolution, as determined by our education and our civilization. So many good reasons to highlight them, Ladies, either reasonably, in your everyday clothing, or boldly during your romantic dinners, or madly before going into the alcove ... Offbeat science: why do men love breasts so much? There are several theories explaining men's attraction to women's breasts. The latest, proposed by psychologist Larry Young, defends the idea that it comes from a particular neural circuit used to promote a mother's attachment to her baby during breastfeeding, but also to her partner. which stimulates the chest during intercourse. By caressing the breasts, men would push women to love them more ... It's common knowledge: men love women's breasts. But why ? Not everyone agrees on this point. Some people think, for example, that a woman with a large breast is seen as fertile and able to properly feed her baby. But Larry Young, psychologist at Emory University and Brian Alexander, journalist and writer, disagree. They defend their point of view in a book called The chemistry between us and explain that everything would be governed by a neural network that is established in the woman to facilitate attachment to her baby during breastfeeding. It would also be borrowed when, in sexual intercourse, a man strokes his partner's chest, which would push her to focus her attention and love on her lover ... Attraction to breasts, a story of ... brainsLarry Young specializes in studying the neurological bases of complex social behaviors. He explains that when breastfeeding, when the baby sucks on the mother's nipple, her mother sees her brain flooded with a hormone called oxytocin, famous for being strongly associated with love and attachment. Thus, the woman gives all her affection to her little one. The chest also plays an important role during intercourse and actively participates in arousal. Caressing this area has been shown to activate the same areas of the brain as stimulation of the vagina or clitoris. And as for infants who are recovering, the delicate gestures of a lover induce a massive release of oxytocin. The target of female attention, in this case, is none other than her partner. From the point of view of reproductive success, it is therefore interesting for a man to love the breasts of women so that they lend him more affection and love, conditions required to form a lasting couple. Young sees in it traces of natural selection, the males showing an appetite for breasts having been able to reproduce more than the others. As a result, men's attraction to breasts would have become a norm and the psychologist even describes the presence of a specific neural network that would develop in heterosexual males at the time of puberty. To love the breasts, the characteristic of the man?But why would Man be the only exception in the animal world? The authors of the book provide their explanations. On the one hand, in mammals, 97% of species are not monogamous *, which already eliminates a good number of species. Then the difference would come from our peculiarity of making love face to face, which is not found in other monogamous mammals. The vole, for example, rides on the back of its female, whose udders are directed downwards. No possibility of reaching them during intercourse, therefore the behavior was not selected by evolution. The theory is attractive, but not unanimous. Because Man is a being of nature, but also of culture. Thus, anthropologist Fran Mascia-Lees, of Rutgers University (New Brunswick, United States), cannot fully agree with the theses of Young and Alexander. Indeed, she signals that not all men are attracted to breasts. For example, she evokes those traditional societies in Africa in which the women walk around topless without arousing any particular interest from the male members of the troop. The debate could therefore be a little more complex and perhaps not be limited to simple neural networks ... * The human species cannot be considered as strict monogamous. Aside from questions of infidelity, depending on the period or region of the world, polygamy has existed and still exists. Just think of the harems of the Ottomans or the multiple marriages of men of the Mormon faith. Likewise, Man does not only practice face-to-face sex and has developed many practices and fantasies for the sake of pleasure, because with him (as with others), sexuality is not just one. reproduction case.
What percentage of people have seen a ghost? what is ghost, why we believe to see ghosts, how many people believe to see ghost? Thanks to our self-talk skills. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, 20% of the americans believe in ghosts. “Our societies generate a lot of uncertainty. And since science only explains part of reality and religion crumbles, it opens the door to paranormal beliefs, ”says sociologist Daniel Boy. "Faced with this type of conviction, the facts no longer count", he adds. Even if the people concerned are otherwise rational. Because a phenomenon called "confirmation bias" takes place. Numerous experiments demonstrate this. In their perception of information, subjects who are convinced of a fact tend to take into account only the arguments reinforcing this conviction, and to dismiss or question all the others. It is therefore in good faith that they continue to believe in what is important to them. When neurons get confused Neuroscience is also shedding light on this question. Several recent studies show that the mechanisms of visual and auditory perception and that of the imagination follow the same neural circuits. In other words, whether a person is in front of me, in the flesh, or in my head, it makes no difference to my brain! This is perhaps why neurons can sometimes get a little confused. "There is no center in the brain that determines whether we are confronted with reality or with the imaginary," underlines Jacques Jonas, neurologist at the CHU de Nancy, researcher at the CNRS and the University of Lorraine. Crossing a ghost, riding a dragon, getting angry with a witch: are these experiences really imaginary? And if it was the opposite… Do you believe in ghosts? The question is constantly asked, from the frightening stories people tell each other during summer camp vigils to media accounts of paranormal events that mobilize crowds. It serves to divide the world into two categories: there would be the gullible on the one hand and the skeptics on the other; those who believe it and those who do not. However, when we question the witnesses of these events, things always seem more complicated: those who believe in them constantly evoke their doubts while the unbelievers sometimes let themselves be taken ... In short, the question of belief seems very far away to exhaust the subject - especially since the people involved rarely speak of believing or not in ghosts, but much more often evoking the fact of "feeling" their presence, or even "being afraid" of them. What if, rather than asking who believes it and how, we try to find out what is going on? This is the gamble launched by issue 69 of the anthropology journal Terrain: the various contributors to the issue looked at the modalities of encounters with ghosts, in various societies and at various times. They described, as accurately as possible, the ways in which the dead return, and how these manifestations affect the living who attend. If ghosts are things that happen, what can we learn from these appearances? "There are dead people in the houses just as there are trays with fruit"The appearance of ghosts is always an event - including when it does not cause any surprise, like the Icelandic interlocutors of the anthropologist Christophe Pons who explain to him that "there are deaths in the houses as there are. trays with fruit ”. Even when the existence of ghosts is obvious, perfectly accepted, their appearance constitutes a rupture. It is an event in the sense that the ordinary categories of perception and intelligibility do not quite allow these situations to be accounted for; we cannot immediately make sense of them. Wherever they appear, ghosts do not leave the living the leisure to believe in them or not: they create a disturbance, an upheaval with which it is now necessary to do. It is no coincidence that many of our current communications technologies were preceded or followed by attempts to communicate with the afterlife - from Thomas Edison to the ghost hunters on YouTube. The gap between the usual sensitive experience and that involved in the spectral manifestations characterizes these events. Lead the investigationThe first effect of these appearances is then to trigger a process of inquiry, in order to understand what is happening and, above all, to find a solution. When in February 1938 inhuman cries escaped from a house in the Bethnal Green district of London, locked doors opened for no reason and furniture overturned, everyone wondered about the meaning of these inexplicable phenomena: the inhabitants of the house but also the journalist of the Evening Standard commissioned to cover this news item, or the increasingly large crowd which gathers every evening to try to see something. The investigation also mobilizes Doctor Nandor Fodor, famous member of the International Institute for Psychical Research, who will leave many reports on this subject - ghosts in fact gave rise at the turn of the 20th century in Europe to multiple technological devices and learned societies. whose goal was to “scientifically” study the existence of these supernatural beings. But the appearance of a ghost is first of all an event because it forces action, something to do. She forces the living who witness the return of the dead to recompose their daily lives and their relationships: in Bethnal Green, one of the inhabitants of the house, Mrs. Harrison, was finally forced to leave. She had been identified as the root cause of the disturbances - without investigators fully deciding the nature of her responsibility. Had she fabricated the paranormal phenomena out of thin air, or was she the object of the postmortem resentment of the old cripple she had cared for? For the protagonists of this story, the question ultimately matters little: Mrs. Harrison left the house, and the phenomena immediately ceased. This example shows that the appearance of ghosts constitutes a test: there is a before and an after the meeting, for the living to whom they manifest themselves. What the ghosts make appearStudying the varied modalities of these apparitions is of great anthropological interest. In fact, ghosts are not content to appear: through their modes of presence, as well as through the solutions that the living implement to resolve these problematic situations, ghosts provide us with information on the political, social and religious contexts in which they are take place. They thus reveal a certain number of issues which are sometimes difficult to formulate otherwise - because they are linked to conflicting or violent events which cause a traumatic past to emerge in the present. But ghosts are not only "ghosts": by their very presence, they also open up possibilities for the future. Thus, in his work on the Vietnamese village of Cam Re, which was at the center of the Vietnam wars (1945-1975), Heonik Kwon evokes, in his contribution to the issue, these “invisible neighbors” who are the dead. Villagers live alongside the ghosts of a French officer, timid and starving American soldiers, and those of young Vietnamese who have come from all over the country to die far from home. These orphan dead, left without burial and whose memory nobody cultivates, tend to wander in the village and "hang out in the streets". Faced with these unjust deaths, the villagers began to extend gestures of hospitality to their "invisible neighbors", offering them food and drink. These ritual offerings are imbued with the hope of reciprocity: that someone will do the same to their own displaced dead. Taking ghost appearances and the accounts of these encounters seriously - because ghosts lend themselves particularly to storytelling - is therefore, above all, a way of taking seriously the various ways in which the living are affected by their dead. Life after death: when believing in the afterlife helps to live NDE - experience of imminent death, medium, guardian angel, ghost of a missing relative ... Many people believe in the hereafter and its manifestations. Often a way to live more serenely, free from the fear of death and the pain of mourning. “When my father passed away, I placed things in his coffin. I didn't tell anyone about it. Then I interviewed psychics who say they communicate with the dead. Will they find out what objects it is? ? " Thus begins The test (ed. Albin Michel), by Stéphane Allix, investigative journalist, director of Inrees (Institute for Research on Extraordinary Experiences) and author of numerous books on the afterlife and the possibility of A life after the death. If the most skeptical will not necessarily be convinced by Stéphane Allix's demonstration, it is undeniable that some of his interviews with mediums for this "test" are at the very least disturbing. The work is also a considerable public success, proving if it was necessary the current appetite of the public for esotericism, mediumship and research on a possible persistence of consciousness after death. If these questions have always fascinated crowds, their current approach has the singularity of being based on an approach claiming to be scientific. This is the case for Stéphane Allix, who never ceases to recall during interviews his quality as an investigative journalist, but also for Jean-Jacques Charbonier, anesthetist whom we also interviewed. Above all, whether it is these media personalities but also our other witnesses, this conviction that we do not come down to an earthly body seems above all to help us to live. Testimonials. "There is no proof that there is nothing after death"For Stéphane Allix, it all started, he tells us, with the sudden death of his brother, in a car accident in Afghanistan. "He died in my arms. From there, I needed to understand. Before that, the subjects qualified as" supernatural "were not for me serious. Then I discovered disturbing testimonies, books , and especially the work of researchers on near-death experiences (NDE), in particular. While investigating, I began to realize one thing: what we take for a scientific certainty - there is nothing after death ', is not based on any evidence. " For ten years, Stéphane Allix has now worked full-time at what he wishes to define as a journalistic enterprise, collecting the comments of former comatose patients, people who have experienced NDEs, meeting mediums, talking with specialists in brain. Do not dare to speak to him about faith or belief: "Faith has nothing to do with it. It can sometimes be intuitions, feelings that are difficult to put into words, as when I I have repeatedly 'felt' my father's presence during my interviews with mediums for The Test, but I don't 'believe' in the afterlife: I have acquired knowledge, based on facts. " He continues: “During my investigation, some psychics gave me information about my father, how he died, some members of my family, giving me specific details that they could not guess. explain otherwise than by the fact that they were really in communication with these missing relatives? " "When he died I perceived a living and joyful presence coming out of his body"An approach that converges with that of Jean-Jacques Charbonier, who also devotes a large part of his activity to trying to understand what happens when the body dies. Again, this quest was born out of a confrontation with death. "I was finishing my medical studies and I was doing an internship with the Samu before taking on a patient to become a general practitioner, says the doctor. I found myself at the scene of a car accident which had caused many victims. J must have entered a vehicle where a very young man was stuck. He had to be infused, quickly, so that his heart did not stop. Alas, my inexperience and the difficulty of the situation did not allow me to do so. keep alive. When he passed away, I then sensed a living and joyful presence coming out of his body. It was of a power and strength impossible to describe. As a result of this experience, I decided to become an anesthesiologist, which meant going back to school for three years and dropping my office project. A radical change, but I had to study the coma, try to understand. Because I was in it now. certain: we are not only a body as I am had hammered in medicine, but a spirit in a body. And when this body goes out, what I call intuitive consciousness, it doesn't die. " The persistence of a consciousness even when an individual is in clinical death or, to quote Jean-Jacques Charbonier, "in temporary death", such is the theory on which many researchers are currently based. "About 20% of patients who have been declared clinically dead and then woke up are able to relate what was going on around them, sometimes even from miles away. Their testimonies overlap most of the time. And this even then. that their brain was no longer active ", assures Stéphane Allix. And to add, together with Jean-Jacques Charbonnier: "There is no tangible proof that there is nothing after death. On the other hand, there is a bundle of information which suggests the opposite. " Feel a presenceIt is not Adeline, a young teacher, quite "rational" moreover according to her own words, who will contradict these two apostles of a post-mortem existence. At the age of ten, Adeline fell violently down a staircase and broke her skull. "I saw my life go by, I heard voices calling me and saw this great light. And then suddenly I felt that I had come back." Doctors at the hospital do not hide from his parents that his survival is a miracle. Since then, Adeline is certain that she has guardian angels. A conviction reinforced at the age of 21, when she was hit by a car: "Not a scratch. For me it's obvious, I was protected." Claire as for her, after having watched for several days her father plunged into a coma following a heart attack, "felt" one morning when entering her room that he had left his carnal envelope. "He was not yet dead, but for me he was no longer there. There was only his body. My sister laughed at me when I told her about it. That night my husband and I slept in my father's house and he was there, close to us. I could perceive his presence so clearly it was scary. All night long the radiators made a hell of a noise while we were there. in the middle of summer and they were off. My husband heard them too. A few days later my father passed away. " During the following years, Claire has terrible nightmares and wakes up, convinced that a man is there, in her room. "I wasn't the only one who was convinced of this, my husband is sure he saw it too when I woke up screaming." Then one night she opens her eyes and "sees" him distinctly: "Sitting on the floor next to my bed. He smiles and hisses, happy. There is like light emanating from his body. He is younger than he is. when he's dead. I stare at him, he stare at me and I tell him 'please don't come back, you scare me too much'. he never came back and I never did the nightmare. A belief that influences the way he sees lifeStories like these abound. To believe it or not to believe it is up to everyone's free will. But all our witnesses, Stéphane Allix and Jean-Jacques Charbonnier included, agree on one point: to accept these signs, to be open to this idea of a life after death and of an autonomy of the soul with respect to its earthly body has an influence on the way of looking at life. "Most people who testify after a near-death experience report a feeling of benevolent self-judgment. With this recurring question: 'what have you done for others during your life?'", Underlines Jean-Jacques Coal. "It is for this reason that I wrote my book Death explained to children (ed. Trédaniel). Because the latter often have unanswered questions and it is possible to present them with a vision of death that is not terrifying. And teach them that what matters most, once our life on earth is over, is not the salary we have earned or to have been first in this or that, but the way in which we loved the kindness of which we were capable. " “Since I started my research and as I discovered, my way of life has changed enormously,” says Stéphane Allix. "It's a bit like Pascal's bet. I have no certainty, but when in doubt I try to live in the direction of what I want to be, not to let myself go to procrastinate until tomorrow. what I can do today, to be clear with myself, in my marriage or as a father. All this while having this sweet feeling of not being alone. " "It's very sweet and reassuring to believe in the presence of our missing"Sometimes also, betting on this beyond helps to stop being afraid to live. Ever since she "saw" her father, Claire "listens to his signs and his instincts". "I decided to go for it by creating objects that I am starting to sell, I found a job when I no longer believed in it. I feel stronger." "It is a kind of very pleasant cocoon, it is very soft and reassuring to believe in the presence of our disappeared, confides for her part Beatrice, 45 years old. Little, my grandmother died while she was looking after me. . I was alone with her for a long time, until my mother picked me up. Later, a colleague had a stroke in front of me while we were talking. I think I touched death so closely. 'led me to take an interest in what was going on afterwards, she says. I devoured the works of Stéphane Allix, I sometimes go to see mediums. I don't feel enlightened, I don't do any proselytizing and I do not attach it to any religious dogma, but I have my guardian angels, I am certain of their presence around me, I sometimes hear that they are addressed to me. It is very furtive, very subtle and that makes my life lighter. So why deprive me of it? "
Gold river? Where and How search for gold. Gold panning has been practiced in USA since the dawn of time. Our many mountainous regions are home to a quantity of precious metal, which then diffuses over a large part of the territory thanks to the various rivers. To help you spot the best places and start looking for glitter and nuggets, here are some essential tips and information. From the depths of our soils to the beds of our rivers, the gold flakes sought by prospectors practicing gold mining are the result of a long journey and of many developments. Let's start by understanding where this precious metal comes from and then try to discern the best places to find it. WHY CAN WE FIND GOLD IN OUR RIVERS?If you are wondering by what phenomenon we can find gold in our rivers today, we invite you to go back more than 4 billion years ago. During the formation of our planet, gold was trapped more than 30km below the surface of the earth. The colliding tectonic plates created the mountains, creating huge cracks in the earth's crust. Fluids and gases then escaped through these cracks, taking with them various materials, such as gold. On cooling, these gases notably transformed into quartz and set the gold in the rock. This is the reason why the history of gold has been linked since the dawn of time to that of quartz. Trapped in stone and in our mountains, part of the gold present on Earth is gradually detaching from the rock under the phenomenon of erosion. And this is how small particles of gold from rock are found in some of our rivers every day. These are called glitter, or even nuggets depending on their sizes. FIND THE GOLDLINEA good gold miner is above all a good strategist. Before finding "a good spot", he must understand the movement of fluids and the path that the gold particles may have taken: he must then draw what is called the "Goldline". This imaginary line represents the path taken by different materials (gold, but also magnetite and ferrite to name only the main ones). Very often this line is the shortest route from point A to point B across the river. The Goldine of the same stretch of river can change over time depending on the flood level. A large flow will inevitably have an impact on the current and on the path that the heavy particles will take. A recession will have the effect of trapping these gold particles more easily within zones of lulls of the current, sometimes forming walls and hollows. They will then settle in areas less battered by the current, gradually forming deposits. It’s these natural obstacles, called "placers", that you should spot for a chance to update your first gold flakes. HOW TO SPOT THE "GLITTER TRAPS"At this point, it is important to understand that it is the effect of the current on the surface obstacles and the relief of the river bed (also called Bedrock in gold miner jargon) that determines where the potential lies. heavy metal deposits like gold. It is in particular the acceleration or slowing down of this current in the face of natural obstacles that will form these deposits over time. It's up to you to observe the current on the Goldline and spot these different changes in rhythm and relief! Here are some cases that you can observe: The meanders The different curves that the river forms to make its way create so many slowdowns and obstacles for the evolution of the gold particles. Thanks to a whirlpool phenomenon, one can expect to find deposits of pebbles and gold just after a bend, on the inner bank. It is often upstream of these deposits that the gold stagnates, the rest of this pile being mainly made up of sand and gravel. The rock in the middle of the river The most obvious obstacle is of course the rock in the middle of the river. While some of the heavy metal particles will be retained upstream of the stone, it is also and above all behind it that the most significant deposit will be observed.If this rock is submerged at the bottom of the stream, its impact on the current is no less: it will then have an identical effect creating behind it a vortex and a drop in pressure, letting the heaviest materials fall. We are talking about rock here, but a simple pebble can also retain gold flakes brought in by the current. Therefore, this is a pervasive case. The rock or the tree on the banksFrom the classic tree trunk to the rocks littering the edge of the river, various obstacles create slows in the current. Like the rock lost in the middle of the river, it is above all behind these natural obstacles that deposits are observed, following a drop in pressure. Variations in river sizesWhen the river thins in front of you, it creates an acceleration of the current which is immediately followed by a sudden slowing down after the narrowest passage. There is therefore a consequent drop in pressure during which the gold falls to the bottom of the stream more easily. The confluences When two streams meet, there is usually one that takes over and determines the continuation of the Goldline. There are therefore deposits of precious metal on the bank opposite the weaker stream, since it is brutally disturbed by the most powerful. A very interesting spot!The most common phenomena of river bed irregularities are: The potThe most interesting of the irregularities of the bed is the pot, name given to evoke its shape of hole. It is therefore a hollow, which over time aggregates all the heavy particles that have passed through it. The heavy particles of gold and other materials literally drop inside as they pass overhead. LoopholesThere are also faults that have the same effect as cooking pots but on a smaller scale. They are simply "cracks" in the ground forming traps of gold glitter. The different levels of the bed When the riverbed suddenly drops before rising again, the current slows down sharply over a tiny tiny area of the ground. Here are housed a quantity of the pebbles passed by: they in turn retain the gold particles. SHOULD WE PREFER CERTAIN PERIODS?Certain times of the year are indeed more conducive to the practice of gold panning. Summer remains the prime time for two reasons. The first is obviously the practical aspect: it is more convenient to prospect a river in summer than icy water in winter! Finally, while floods displace gold in winter, waterways generally recede in summer and this is when we are most likely to find deposits around natural obstacles. Finally, a little Sioux tip: a good way to spot where unexploited deposits may be located is to imagine where and how gold particles move during flood conditions! Fewer gold miners turn to these deposits: you will have more chances of making great discoveries! How to prospect and find gold in rivers? Want to find some gold? That's right ? But you don't know where to start? In reality, looking for gold is not that difficult, because the deposit of gold is quite predictable. You still need to know a few rules. I must also warn you that finding gold flakes or nuggets will require a bit of diligence and research, because finding gold in USA is earned. The precious metal is still scarce, but the day you find it, you can boast that you understand how a gold digger can prospect. The means used can be substantial with a non-negligible ecological cost. Fortunately, despite its rarity, the gold miner can extract it without too many administrative constraints in order to be in accordance with the law, (at least for now) in a leisure setting. For those who embark on the adventure of gold mining, the first question that comes to mind is "where does it come from? Where can I find it? How to look for it?" ". The goal is to provide you with the right gold panning techniques. Here is the question we will try to answer in a very theoretical way. For this, we are going to rely on physical principles, on simplified images. Sometimes the theory doesn't apply as it should; Only field experience pays off. The genesis of gold:Through erosion, water tears various materials from the earth, including this precious metal, which inexorably ends up in the water course. Flood activity moves all materials, but before that, this gold is coming from somewhere? Originally, gold is formed when mountains are formed. The movements of the tectonic plates during the genesis of our planet, caused an immense amount of friction and pressure releasing enormous energy. The gold rose in the form of vapors with the heavy minerals (carbon) and crystallized in the veins and fissures of the geological rock. Very often gold is found in association with another mineral, quartz, which acts as a substrate, filling cracks or faults in certain rock formations. This is why we often talk about gold-bearing quartz veins. As mentioned above, erosion is exposing some deposits. The parent rock is then attacked by the mechanical action of the water in the rivers, which finishes the work of breaking up the rock, releasing the gold in the form of points, flakes, grains and nuggets of gold. As the floods rise, it and the other materials will move from the mountain to the lower streams. Gold also moves in the form of dissolved ions in acidic waters that can precipitate on contact with basic rocks such as shale. The latter form has proven to be studied even today. Now, where are you? Now what are you doing?If you look at the beginning of the article on the chemical characteristics of gold, its density is highlighted. ~ 19.3 gcm3. Since we are only talking about a physical characteristic, we consider density = density. We will therefore focus on the characteristics of the weight of a particle evolving in a moving aquatic environment because that is the key to the problem. First, let's start with a little reminder of a physical principle that will interest us. Archimedes' push. It also applies in the event that moving water pulls an object with it. The movement of this object will depend on the initial speed of the thrust (here it will be the current), the volume of the object and its weight. Without obstacles, the object moves, more or less quickly, depending on its weight and volume. Gold, a heavy metal:In our rivers, gold is the heaviest metal. Also, both prospecting and mining itself, they are always based on the fact that gold is the heaviest material. Gold follows the current along a certain path called "the goldline" and will sometimes get trapped. This goldline has a certain peculiarity. It is made up of equally heavy materials (ferrites, magnetites, red blood cells, gold and all other ferrous debris). All these sets move very slowly according to certain configurations of the terrain. These materials are found trapped by the various natural obstacles. This is precisely what we will see later. Current plays a primary role in this equation. It is based on a physical principle that everyone knows: Archimedes' push. Not that gold floats. We will rather focus on the displacement of heavy sands relative to the rest of the alluvium. The different configurations to find gold deposits:The movement of gold:Since gold does not float, what will interest us is above all the displacement of heavy sands in relation to the rest of the alluvium. Ultimately, gold panning is nothing more than a physical exercise that uses several well-known principles. The goal of the gold digger will therefore be to understand the behavior of the course of the river in order to determine the places where the gold could have been trapped and extracted. This is called "reading the soul of the river". NB: All these explanations are only theoretical. Sometimes the reality on the ground is quite different. This is also the magic of gold mining. In fact, it’s not magic, it’s experience. The goldline (the shortest route): If you talk to a gold miner, you will hear the word "goldline" from his mouth. It is nothing more than the path that gold takes through the stream. Its high density (and therefore its weight) means that it will follow a very specific path. Generally speaking, gold will take the shortest route. A higher flow, as during a flood, can modify this path appreciably according to the configuration of the bedrock. These floods carry gold as well as gravel and pebbles. When the flood subsides, all moving objects land in very specific areas. These areas are areas of low pressure, a sudden slowing down of the current. Gold, being heavier, it will tend to deposit first in these lull areas. It is precisely the study of these areas that will allow the prospector to find "The spot". The different configurations favoring gold deposits:The meanders :The first zone generating a drop in current pressure is the meander, and more broadly a curve. In a meander, there is a deposit of pebbles which forms on the interior part. In a gold-bearing river, gold deposits are made on these gravel banks. These ushermen, as they are called, are made up of pebbles, sediments, clays. Gold and pebbles being heavy, they seek to settle where the current is less rapid. This is especially true in times of high water. It is therefore on the bank of the interior side that the deposit will be made. There is the current that we see, but there is also what is happening at the bottom of the water. If the goldline follows the inner part of the curve, it is also because of side current. This swirling current goes from the outer bank (erosion zone) to the interior (deposit zone). Floods can be beneficial:In times of flood, these currents are faster and more powerful. The goldline will therefore change course. With a faster current, the outer bank erodes, supplying the interior of the usher with rock or even gold. Usually, the largest concentration of gold and large pebbles will be found in the front of the usher. Conversely, the lighter sands will settle at the end, often sterile. It is a phenomenon of gravity settling. The rocks are also very good gold traps, as long as they are in contact with the current. This obstacle will create turbulence in its wake. This turbulence will disturb the speed of the current causing an area of low pressure and the current will abruptly decrease. Turbulence plays a role in sorting, retaining the heaviest materials just behind the obstacle and releasing the lighter ones. As before, the variation in flow influences the strength of the currents, and therefore the ability of the obstacle to capture gold. Obstacles along the bank: The banks with obstacle: Another very common case, a rock, a torn tree trunk or any other obstacle located on the bank and overflowing into the water will have the same effect as before. Still on the same principle, the obstacle opposes the current. It alters part of the path of the initial current, causing a vortex behind it and slowing the speed of the water in that area. The deposit capacity is even greater there because the bank amplifies the effect and therefore accentuates the accumulation of heavy materials. It is interesting to note that if the obstacle presents any irregularities on its surface, it will be even more traps for the gold to prospect. Irregular banks: It is rare to find perfectly parallel banks in a natural environment. In this case, we have a bank that shows a narrowing of the stream and then a widening. In fluid mechanics, this is called the "VENTURI effect". To put it simply, this narrowing accelerates the current and the widening which follows, creating a sudden slowing down and therefore a drop in pressure, and which says "pressure drop" says "heavy material deposition", therefore gold. In this type of configuration, it is necessary to work in an aquatic environment to recover the gravel, knowing that the prospecting and extraction area can be very large. The confluence areas: A confluence is where one river flows into another. Under conditions where the main stream keeps a straight course, the arrival of another stream across will impact the path of the goldline. At this crossing, the current of the adjacent arm comes into contact with the current of the main arm, much stronger. This will have the effect of deflecting all the materials carried towards the opposite bank as well as the goldline. The provenance of the gold origin (main and / or adjacent arm) will have no impact on the deposit. We have just seen the main conditions for depositing gold, but it is also interesting to see what happens on the bedrock and underwater. The bed of the stream is far from smooth and perfectly flat. And it is on this irregular surface of the bed that the goldline circulates. It is therefore on the bedrock (source rock or bedrock) that the gold miner must work as a priority because it is a surface that remains stable despite the current, unlike gravel and pebbles. Fortunately, there are some special predispositions that allow gold to be trapped. Seen in profile, what does it look like?The submerged rock or pebble: In water, the most common obstacles to explore are rocks or large pebbles. In fact, this is not what is missing ... The ideal, above all, is to ask yourself the question. In the event of a flood, will it be washed away or not? If he's likely to stay put, we'll have a good chance of finding gold. It should also be noted that irregular shapes of the bedrock having this configuration will unfortunately have the same effect. This kind of obstacle has a very special effect on the current. In opposition, it deflects the current all around it and generates in its wake a vortex, more precisely a vortex. As seen previously, this vortex will capture the materials carried by the current and will proceed to sorting. Only the heaviest particles will remain in contact with the rock, safe from the tumults of the vortex, and the rest will be ejected. Bed rock collapse: In places, you will notice that the bedrock is gaining depth. The volume of water becomes larger and the speed of the current decreases. This slowing down is a factor favoring material deposits. The pebbles stabilize in this zone of depression and, in turn, act as obstacles. It will then be interesting to look for the gold-bearing gravels behind or under the largest pebbles. The objective for the gold miner will be to reach the bedrock under the cobbles. When the bedrock floor rises, there is an erosion phenomenon on this part which can also capture gold and heavy sands. The pots: The pot is the name given in the gold mining industry to describe a hole in a bedrock or in a submerged rock. This hole creates a vacuum which, with the speed of the current, will create a vortex. As always, this vortex will capture and sort the materials. These pots are highly sought after by artisanal miners because they know they will find gold and sometimes in large quantities. However, it can sometimes be difficult to locate because sometimes the pot is completely clogged and appears invisible. When operating a pot, the most interesting is at the bottom, as the concentration of gold and heavy sand is often higher than elsewhere. Pots are natural holes in the bedrock. Ideal place to prospect if you don't have a gravel bank within reach of a shovel.You just have to make sure that at some point in the year the hole is under the water so that it fills with gravel. When submerged and under the effect of the current, the interior of the hole remains sheltered from the tumult of the water. It is said to be an area of low pressure or zone of calm that promotes deposits. This hole will still be swept by the current but with much less intensity. The deposits there are brewing. The materials are sorted. The heaviest remain at the bottom. The lighter ones come out of the hole and continue on their way. While exploring, you may find some out of the water, but usually they are submerged. When you prospect for a pot, it is often full of water. First, start with your shovel and then if there is too much water, finish with the hand pump. The highest concentration of gold is found deep within, in contact with rock. When working a pot, it must be completely emptied. Faults and cracks: While bedrock generally feels smooth and slippery, its structure itself is not. The bedrock can be compared to slabs laid next to each other. It also happens that some bedrock "slabs" show even small cracks. All these spaces are called faults or cracks. Of varying depths and shapes, it is a very interesting terrain to scratch. The faults have the same effect as a cooking pot but on a much smaller scale. Oddly enough, it is often in the faults that we find the biggest glitter (see nuggets). However, extraction is often difficult because the pebbles tend to get stuck in the faults; Specific material (hook) is then necessary. But as always, perseverance pays off! You just have to keep in mind that current is the energy that allows any form of gold deposit. This deposition takes place either by creating a vortex due to an obstacle, or by slowing down the current itself, which creates a phenomenon of the material settling under the effect of gravity. What differentiates a good prospector from a bad one is their ability to decipher these phenomena in the natural environment. But nature has many surprises in store for us. Experience shows us that the theory can be undermined in some cases! Faults can be found on the surface when the level is low. They are more numerous in the bed of the river. Faults are large cracks in the rock. They work on the same principle as a cooking pot. They can be in the longitudinal direction or transverse to the current. The goal for you will be to completely extract everything you can find there. Even if it’s prospecting, you won’t have wasted your time. It is very likely that some pebbles are stuck and the sands compacted. Don't hesitate to use a blunt object to dislodge them. The harder it is to extract, the older and more compacted the area. The cracks are faults but small in size (on the order of 1 cm maximum). They can be found on a rock or the bedrock. Just because it's smaller doesn't mean there's no gold. For the cracks, you will need 2 tools. If the rock is submerged, use a hand pump or squeeze bottle. If it is on the surface, use a hook or other blunt tool. A rock with a lot of irregular shapes is ideal for scraping and prospecting. Some are avid snipers. It is a practice of using a squeeze bottle to suck up gold underwater. Diving mask to provide ... How do you apply all this to find gold in the field?The story of the stream:There is no mystery. If the stream in question contains gold, chances are it has already been mined in the past. For that, Google is our friend, as well as some books which remain rare to find. However, it happens to find rivers that have escaped past exploitation and therefore not listed. Water heights: Check the average minimum and maximum height of the watercourse to prospect. Indeed, gold mining remains a seasonal activity, often practiced in summer, when the waterways are at their lowest. For a prospector, it will be interesting to know the maximum water depth (vigicrues). There is a maximum height which is generally done during the melting of the ice, in spring, taking into account the cumulative precipitation. Your best bet is to follow the height of the water during a flood, especially if it occurs before the start of your gold panning session. The two reasons which favor the research are as follows: The first is the height of the flood. It will allow you to prospect more areas in relation to the height of the banks. In times of flooding, even heavy materials are stirred on the surface, contrary to what some may believe and say here and there. The second reason is that a current will not necessarily follow the same path (bed) as when the river is at a low level. The goldline can deviate from its usual path. Also, it is recommended to go and see the behavior of the river during these periods of flooding to visualize these phenomena. This will give you hints when prospecting when the levels are at their lowest. What material to take to prospect for gold?Technically, you don't need much, but the little you will take will be essential. The first essential thing to have is an American pan or pan, a shovel, even in a miniature version, a small fault hook, a suction bottle to recover the precious metal and a hand pump to suck up gravel. in water. That's all !!! Leave your ramp at home as this is the best way to waste time. Why a hand pump? And why is the sieve not in this list? Two very relevant questions. A hand pump should be the material for you that should occupy as important a place as a pack. During some introductory courses, this tool is hardly ever used, yet it remains essential. Indeed, even if the gold settles on the banks and the gravel banks out of the water, their quantities and their qualities are much greater in the water on the bedrock. The hand pump remains a simple tool to make yourself at a very affordable price. You will have noticed that I am not talking about a sieve and the reason is very simple: In prospecting, the goal is to find out where the deposit is the most important. To prospect correctly, you must test and collect:When taking samples, it is preferable to test raw gravel with an identical volume of gravel to test in the pan. Thus, for an equivalent volume of gravel, you will have a perfect point of comparison on your different samples. In prospecting, you have to travel light because you will certainly have to go a long way. No need to overload. Also pack a pair of waders so you can walk in the water without worrying about getting wet. What are the first things to look out for before starting prospecting?That's it, you have found the ideal river, the right time to go, and a very specific area to spend your (1/2) day! Here you are there and in front of you, a whole play area. The big question then arises: "where to start?" " Learn to read the river:The first thing you'll have to feel is the soul of the river. How it behaves in front of your eyes, and imagining in parallel, how it behaves during a flood. By this point, you have already gathered quite a bit of information, even if it is the first time that you have come to this place. The first data you are going to look for will be on your phone (or your pc before leaving). A short turn on vigicrue to raise the current water level. So you can imagine how far the water has risen to its highest point. This data is very important. It allows you to visualize areas that were underwater a few months ago and are now dry. How to do ?The very first thing to look at is obviously the current. It is the carrier of gold. We watch how it circulates: If there are areas of acceleration or deceleration, areas where there is a lot or little bottom, if the water circulates in a laminar way or with eddies, if the current winds or remains straight, if there are large rocks visible on the surface. We must always keep in mind that the goldline, and therefore gold, will tend to be trapped when the water course slows down, or when meeting an obstacle, and imagine the behavior of the water when the level is much higher compared to all that. Look at the pebbles:The easiest way to start is to observe the gravel banks. Take a closer look at pebbles, sands and more generally minerals. If possible, prefer natural traps like faults, holes, large rocks and as a last resort large pebbles. It is interesting to look at the presence of certain minerals such as quartz, hematites or even small pieces of iron or fishing sinkers (probable indicator of gold deposit). The presence of quartz will comfort you in the presence of gold because one does not go without the other. As a reminder, it is in quartz that native gold is found trapped in the rock before ending up in the river. Hematites and ferrites are constituents of black sand accompanying gold. Finally, the small pieces of iron and lead are very good indicators of a possible deposit of gold because of their weight, quite important, close to that of gold. In some rivers such as Ariège or Limousin, garnets (heavy) are much more present than hematites. Visualize and imagine the deposits:Also, we will have to adapt according to the prospecting area. It is interesting to visualize, on the bank or a gravel bank, the presence of vegetation (small grasses). This gives you the maximum limit of the water level. The same is true for tree trunks collected in the same area. A zone of vegetation initiates the creation of overburden. The added benefit in this case is that you have the additional information, namely that there the current slows down. But when the current slows down, gold settles. Another point to look at is the size of the grains deposited. Since a pebble is heavier than a grain of sand, you will have a better chance of finding large sized gold. If in an area you find a deposit of sand, it will usually be sterile. Indeed, a gravel bank acts as a gravity settling tank. Look at Vigicrue information over time:With a higher water level, this bench will trap the heavier particles and let the lighter ones through. So the large, dense pebbles will overlap and feed the construction of the bench with the gold inside. The sands will instead continue their path and accumulate where the current is less strong at the end of the bank. A river has a soul:Once this observation phase is over, you should have some idea of where to start your first pan tests. Now is the time to get down to business. In fact, there is no "better place" to find gold. Its filing can sometimes surprise you just like its absence. While the theory is simple enough, in practice there may be factors that are beyond our control. The different areas in which you must prospect:The gravel bank:I have told you about the traps that I call "active" because they load up with materials and sort directly by the effect of the current. I'm going to tell you about the gravel bank, which has a more “passive” effect on the gold deposit. The presence in one part of the stream of a gravel bank reflects a slowing down of the current and therefore an accumulation of materials of all kinds. As the water rises and the flow increases, it will collect pebbles, sands, alluvium and gold. The pebbles initially present will play the role of gold traps. As easy as the gold mining activity on a gravel bank, the gold concentration is uncertain. From a theoretical standpoint, gold will tend to be found above the bank. Due to the accumulation of materials with the seasons, there was no real sorting because it is just deposit. The gold will tend to seep over time through the depths of the bank until it reaches the bedrock (therefore inaccessible with the means used in recreational gold panning). In addition, a gravel bank is mobile. If a flood is stronger than usual, it can completely destroy or even wash away an entire bank and displace it several hundred meters further downstream. A gravel bank is not particularly easy to pave:This is how deposits are renewed. To explore a bench, you have to look for an imposing rock (bulder) or a visible piece of bedrock and sort out the gravel that is just behind it, in order to maximize the chances of finding a deposit. Despite its lack of stability, it remains interesting to prospect a bench. Be aware that when you exploit it, you will have to treat a lot of volume to have a suitable harvest ... It will just be necessary to check that this rock is not likely to move during floods. Most of the time, these rocks are partially, if not almost completely, covered with gravel and pebbles, which will be a good thing because, with the gold lodged behind, they will have had time to concentrate. In general, because not all places are the same, a gravel bank is first and foremost an accumulation area. During floods, the current pushes all the alluvium down to this zone (lull zone). Beware of fine particles:These gravels allow the finest minerals including gold (of course) but also silts and clays to pass through to the bottom. If you dig deep in the bench, you will first have gravel and pebbles on the surface, then you will arrive in an area where there will be only clay and silt (orange in color and fairly compact sandy) . If you get to this layer, keep going because this clay bed is a sign that the bedrock is not far away. And if you get to the bedrock, there's a good chance you'll find a lot of gold that's been leaking for tens or even hundreds of years. However, the choice to dig is yours, the layer depth is impossible to predict and the scale of the work can quickly become overwhelming. The current slowing areas can sometimes be interesting but they can be really huge. This slowdown is often due to a rising bed floor or a widening of the banks. This will have the effect of reducing the pressure of the current and therefore a settling of the materials which will settle to the bottom by gravity and by a weaker current. The big problem in these areas is that there can be a lot of bottom, a strong current and the bedrock is never visible (covered with so much pebbles and other alluvial deposits). Extracting gravel can quickly become difficult, but the gold is way below. The banks: The banks are the edges of the body of water. There are often banks of gravel collected on the inner side of a bend, but you can also test the banks outside or when the stream is in a straight line. The gravel deposits are proof of this. These gravel deposits can cover the entire plane of the bank. It is also interesting to test the first herbs (the ones closest to water). The roots act as a filter, much like a carpet, and trap gold particles. Consider replanting those plants that you have uprooted, because it is thanks to them that the bank is held in place. NB: it must be kept in mind that any zone of deposit of gold-bearing gravels (and gravels in general) is never frozen. Any deposit brought by a flood can very well be washed out or replaced by a following one. Everything is in perpetual motion. With the exception of the bedrock and bulder, the configuration of a location can change and create new deposits where there were none. There are therefore phenomena of gold concentration, recharging, destruction and accumulation of alluvial deposits. Beware of clay bedrock:We know the hard and rocky bedrock well, but we talk less about the clay bedrock or false bedrock. This is formed by the accumulation of clay coupled with very rapid drying in its center. This mass thus formed becomes as hard as concrete but remains very friable. Subsequently, the erosion does its job and draws this false bedrock by pots and cracks. Of course, if the goldline goes this way, the gold will settle there. Prospecting advice to better find gold:Locating shallow gold deposits in stream gravels can seem like a daunting task. The following information will help you identify areas where gold is more likely to be found near the surface. Look for the clues.No two rocks or gravel are the same. There are different sizes, shapes, colors and above all densities. The water pressure will sort various rocks in different areas along a stream based on size, shape and weight, which is important. Rocks with a higher density or weight are often found with other heavy minerals such as gold and gemstones. Each time you pan wash, look at what stone is present in the pan near the end. Then, as you move around, look for the same stone on the gravel surface or behind larger obstacles. Why would heavy materials be on the surface and not at depth?The first answer is water pressure. Without going into too much detail, let's take a look at what you see when you first walk by a stream. There are always areas of deep and shallow water. Both are important and understanding is the key. You are more likely to find gold in the upper layers of gravel, just downstream of a deep water hole for a simple reason: Anything that passed through that water hole was pushed back to the top of the gravel. by high water pressure. When a tree is knocked over in a gravel flood, water will move around the obstacle digging into the surrounding gravel. As the floodwaters recede, there will be an area of deep water around the root ball and a shallow tail of gravels downstream of it. This is probably the best example, but certainly not the only one where gold is brought to the surface by deeper layers of gravel. This tree may have experienced a lot of flooding during its lifetime and you can be sure that many layers of gold bearing gravels have settled around and behind. Now, it must be said that this does not guarantee that the gold is there. The location of the tree in the stream bed has a lot to do with what was deposited downstream of the stream. Where's the gold?Prospect a river in a straight line.Small practical case in a small river, during a survey. [A] Go for the obvious first and go check on the inside of the turn. A small bar of gravel just to the right of the tree trunk is the first area to test, because it is the most obvious. [B] A fairly interesting area to explore. Tree debris, larger rocks in the stream, and fine gravel in the water. [C] Exposed bedrock plunging into the stream. Lots of fine gravel towards the center of the creek with rocks sitting on the gravel bar (notice the rapids) and calmer water towards the shore. [D] Bedrock going from the bank to the middle of the stream. Lots of large submerged rocks surrounding the area and very little fine gravel below the waterline just past the sheer area. Result of prospecting and conclusion.The most interesting area of the 4 points is area B. Why? Even if the photo is not great, point A is not the best because the water flows very fast, too fast even. The deposit exists but the gravel bank is relatively recent. In addition, the tree trunk in zone A is well anchored in the ground. It therefore modifies the exterior of the meander, which makes zone A of little interest. Zone B is the first obstacle that marks the start of the slowdown. So it's the best place in the area for that simple fact. The change in direction of the main flow, due to the trunk of Zone A, changes the direction of the flow at the end of the turn, forcing the water through the areas of boulders and bedrock that you can see in the creek between A and B. This pushes the water towards B. Hitting the shore and trees in Zone B instantly slows down and deposits in vegetation, fine gravel and gold on the front of the trees and some on the side and back. prospecting result on 4 zonesThe test result clearly shows the phenomenon of water and its action on the deposit of gold. A straight river always has pitfalls.Even if a stream is in a straight line, the gold traps still exist, we still need to see and recognize them. It is very interesting to check the terrace areas. These are areas of earth and gravel either erosive or deposits. These terraces appear like gravel on a slope. This peculiarity in the form of a downward slope reflects a strong accumulation that took place violently during floods. If you have a waterfall, there are 3 places to check. First, the borders of the eluvial line of the fall, as in the photo above. This is the kind of interesting area because a waterfall is formed by bedrock so with possible faults, especially on the edges. When the level rises, the goldline moves around the edges and you can find a lot of gold in these waterfall edges. The funnel-shaped appearance lends itself very well to this type of deposit. Some waterfalls can appear in 2 columns as in the photo above. After the first fall, there is a settling zone, before falling on the second column. This area is often deep and ideal for sorting minerals. This is the very example of a fluidized bed (fluid bed as on a bazooka sluice). We have the same phenomenon after the second column. A Henderson hand pump will be the perfect tool to check if a gold deposit exists, with a high probability of having fine grains or even gold nuggets. To remember !During this prospecting, you will have to compare the content of your sections in the different places tested. You have systematically sorted raw gravel without sieving, which allows you to have a real point of comparison between the volume of gravel and the amount of gold. During your prospecting, it is essential to see as many different places as possible in all possible configurations to draw up a complete diagram of the place where you are. Now that this diagram is clear, the next job will be to find the perfect spot to put your wash ramp down and clear out all the gold rich areas. At that point, as I always say, the math is simple, the more gravel you put in your ramp, the more gold you will harvest. This is the "exploitation" part, the most lucrative in terms of finding but the least interesting in terms of leisure. Be careful, however, not to pull out your gold panning ramp too quickly. You really have to take the time to fully understand how the deposit works in your area. Also be careful to think carefully if the use of a ramp is really necessary. A ramp is only useful for handling a large amount of gravel. For example, if your area is mostly the micro crack to be hooked, it will be faster to mine the side crack area. but you will decide which material is most suitable. Make no mistake, gold also knows how to be stealthy and hide. It will be with your qualities, your perseverance, your eye and your intuition that you will manage to find it. Don't expect to harvest 1 gram of gold per day, either. It does happen, but the reality on the ground is not always so. Gold panning is learned day after day, ride after ride, and luck has a lot to do with it too. Theory is one thing, but it's only theory….
Who is Santa Claus? Is Santa Claus real? To believe or not to believe in Santa Claus? If your child has doubts, here are some tips for responding well to questions.Each end of the year ends with a flourish for the children, with gifts in their shoes at the beginning of December for Saint-Nicolas. Then Santa Claus who goes down by the fireplace to bring the gifts, which his elves have made, at the foot of the tree. A beautiful period which is coming to an end. But a period rich in questions for children. "How can Saint Nicholas and Father Christmas bring us presents when we don't have a fireplace?" Or again: "does Santa Claus really exist?" It is not always easy as parents to find the right words in these somewhat special moments. Rest assured, there are never right or wrong answers. "Each parent should explain it as they see fit, but not making fun of their child," explains child and adolescent psychologist Soline from Udekem. This step is more than just believing or not believing. This is the moment when the child will separate the real from the imaginary. "It goes beyond Santa Claus, Saint Nicholas or the Little Mouse, it's also realizing that princesses in cartoons, monsters under the bed or even unicorns are not real." This awareness normally occurs around the age of 8. Is there an age? It's like everything, it depends on the maturity of each child. “Usually parents feel if it is the right time or not to say it. Now if the child is 3 years old, it is different. If he asks the question of whether Saint Nicholas exists the answer can simply be 'yes' at that age ", continues Soline d'Udekem. Keep in mind that you should not force a child to believe this if they have questions and are mature enough. "Often, it's around the age of 7 or 8. Now if he already understands at 6, it will be at that age. The goal is not to take his child for dumber than he is. If he has doubts, he will understand. You have to be transparent. Otherwise the child will no longer trust his parents. " There is now a limit to all these beliefs, "I think the limit is at the end of the primary. Beyond that, the child will be subject to teasing," said the psychologist. And if the big brother or the big sister puts a grain of salt in wanting to reveal this sweet dream to the little ones in the family, it is important to remember that he believed in it and that he appreciated believing in it. So you have to leave your little brother or sister in your imagination a little longer. Each person at his own pace. Where does the story of Santa Claus come from? Everyone knows what he looks like: a pot-bellied, jovial old man with a thick white beard, dressed in red. But do you know the real origins of Santa Claus? No ? So make yourself comfortable, we'll tell you everything. Where was Santa Claus born? There is no official version, but we agree that Father Christmas has his origins in Northern Europe, more precisely on the side of Nicolas de Myre. Better known under the name of Saint-Nicolas, this famous character in Christendom was born in AD 270 in the city of Patara, in Asia Minor, a region corresponding to present-day Turkey. Converted to Christianity and died as a martyr around 345, the bishop was canonized by the Church and celebrated on December 6 in several countries of Northern and Eastern Europe. He is represented distributing gifts to good children and we already find some of his attributes including the white beard and the red lining of the coat. How did he get to US? During the 12th century, a Lorraine knight returning from a crusade passed through the Italian city of Bari, where the relics of Saint Nicholas were stored. It was he who exported the cult of Santa Claus. The inhabitants of the North as well as of Belgium and the Netherlands, celebrated it on the night of December 5 to 6: the children awaited the arrival of Saint Nicholas on his mule by placing their shoes in front of the fireplace or in front of the door, as well as sugar, milk and a carrot for his mount. The wisest were rewarded with gifts, while the others received blows from Father Fouettard, all in black. Despite the Protestant reform which suppressed the feast of Saint Nicholas in the 16th century, the Dutch kept their Sinter Klaas and its distribution of toys. When they settled in the United States, Sinter Klass transformed into Santa Claus. In a few decades, this custom spread among the homes of English settlers. Christian families preferred that this children's festival be associated with the birth of the baby Jesus. This is how Santa Claus began his tour on the night of December 24. Why a sleigh? If Saint Nicholas traveled on the back of a donkey, it was the writer Clément Clarke Moore who provided him with a more opulent team: in 1821 he invented a Christmas tale for his children, entitled "The night before Christmas. »In which the reindeer-drawn sleigh appears.This author subsequently wrote the text "The Visit of Saint Nicholas" published in the Sentinel newspaper in New York in 1823, in which the distribution of gifts was carried out from a cart pulled by eight reindeer. The ninth reindeer was added a century later: Rudolf then lit the path with his luminous red nose. This story went around the world and influenced representations of Santa Claus. Why does he live in Lapland? /or North Pole?/ Thomas Nast, illustrator of the New York newspaper "Harper's Illustrated Weekly", sketched his route in 1885, going from the North Pole to the United States. But the Americans had not finished putting their two cents in this story ... And Coca Cola in all of this? The old man becoming, in fact, more and more popular in the United States, the American firm had the brilliant idea of drawing him drinking Coca-Cola to regain his strength during his distribution of toys. He was thus dressed in the colors of the famous bottle: red and white. It is therefore not the company that invented from scratch this character loved by young and old, as many think, but it who gave him a makeover. Coca-Cola has done a hell of a lot of advertising for Santa Claus around the world!
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